Pulmonary Nocardiosis; Similarity to Tuberculosis (A Bacteriological and Proteomics Study)

Author

By MogahidM. El Hassan, Nageeb S. Saeed, Mohamed E. Hamid, M. Goodfellow.

Abstracts

The aims of the present study were to decide the occurrence of nocardia spp. among Sudanese patients suspected with tuberculosis and to investigate all proteins expressed by the genome of Nocardia africana (formerly isolated from patients with pulmonary infection misdiagnosed as MDR and their structures and functions compared to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and twenty-nine patients, presented with pulmonary infection were included in this study. Those patients were examined for the presence of acid- fast bacilli. Two tubes of Lownstein- Jensen (L.J) medium were inoculated with 20 ml of the neutralized sputum sample. All cultures were incubated at 37 °C for 8 weeks before being discarded. Phenotypic characterizations were performed. For nocardia proteom poly acrylamide gele lectrophoresis (PAGE)-based analyses of the four nocardia strains N. farcinica SD1828, N. africana SD 925, and N. asteroides N317 are discussed. In-gel tryptic digestion of these isolates was also performed, then the resulting peptides were introduced to MALDI-TOF peptide mass fingerprints were searched using MASCOT software. Results: Ten isolates showed rapid growth pattern within 2-3 days after inoculation, further conventional methods suggested that all these isolates were belonging to the family nocardiacea. Two Dimentional Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) using pH strips 3-10 revealed that the soluble proteins were visible in a much smaller pI range. All strains exhibited similar protein distributions. A similarity analysis revealed that mycobacterium sequences are of high relevance for the investigated strains. Conclusions: Nocardia revealed considerable occurrence among patients with pulmonary infections (3.3%) giving clinical symptoms similar to those occur by M. tuberculosis infection, this may be due to similarities in functional proteins expressed by their genomes. This finding suggested that pulmonary nocardiosis might occur in patients who suffer from chronic lung disease in Sudan. It is important, therefore, that clinicians in Chest Units should consider this condition, especially when patients with respiratory infections fail to respond to antitubercular therapy.

References

  • Bauer AW., Kirby WM., Sherris JC. and Turck M. (1966). Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J. Clin Pathol 45: 493-496
  • Brubacher JL., Dewitte-Orr SJ., Zorzitto JR., Playle RC., Bols NC. (2003). Redox-active metals in commercial preparations of lipopolysaccharide: implications for studies of cellular responses to bacterial products. Cell Microbiol. 5(4): 233-243
  • Gang Wu., Lei Nie and Weiwen Z. (2005). Predicted highly expressed genes in Nocardia farcinica and the implication for its primary metabolism and nocardial virulence. Antonie van Leeuwenhock 89(1): 135-146.
  • Garcia BV., Garcia H. L., Archer DC., and OrozcoTR. (2001). Acute primary superficial nocardiosis due to Nocardia brasiliensis: a case report in an immunocompromised patient. Eur J Epidemiol. 17(11): 1019-1022
  • Goodfellow M. (1992). The family Nocardiaceae. The prokaryotes; Vol 2. 2nd Ed., Eds. Balows, A., Truper, H. G. et al., SpringerVerlag New York, 1188-213.
  • Hamid ME., Maldonado L., Sharaf Eldin GS., Mohammed MF., Saeed NS., Goodfellow M. (2001) Nocardia africana sp. nov, a new pathogen isolated from patients with pulmonary infections. Clin. Microbiol. 39(2) : 625-30. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/nocar diosis_t.htm
  • Isik KJ., Chun YC. and Goodfellow M. (1999). Nocardia salmonicida nom. rev., a fish pathogen. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49:833– 837
  • Ishikawa Jun., Atsushi Y., Yuzuru M., Yasutaka H., Haruyo K., Kunimoto H., Tadayoshi S. and Masahiara H. (2004)The complete genomic sequence of Nocardia farcinica IFM 10152. PNAS 101(41):14925-14930
  • Koltzscher M., Claudia N., Simone K. and Volker G. (2003). Ca2+-dependent binding and activation of dormant ezrin by dimeric S100P. Mol Biol of the Cell 14(6): 2372- 2384
  • Mattow J., Jungblut PR., Schaible UE., Mollenkopf HJ., Lamer S., Zimny-Arndt U., Hagens K., Müller EC., Kaufmann, SH. (2001). Identification of proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis missing in attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains. Electrophoresis 22(14):2936-46.
  • Minnikin DE, Alshamaony L. and M. Goodfellow. 1975. Differentiation of Mycobacterium, Nocardia and related taxa by thin-layer chromatographic analyses of whole-cell methanolysates. J. Gen. Microbiol. 88:200–204
  • Mogahid EE, Kanury VS., Zaved S., Dinesh SK., Rashmi T., Nageeb SS.,MoawiaMM. and Mohamed H. (2007) Proteomics of Nocardia africana (SD769) recently isolated from patients with pulmonary infection in Sudan. Biomacromol Mass Spectrom 1(3): 171-177
  • Orchard, V. A. (1981). The ecology of Nocardia and related taxa. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Suppl. 11: 167-80.
  • Peter R., Jungblut ECM., Jens M. and Stefan HEK. (2003) Proteomics Reveals Open Reading Frames in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Not Predicted b
  • Roberts GD., Koneman EW. and Kim YK. (1991). Mycobacterium, p.304–339. In A. Balows, W. J. Hausler, Jr., K. L. Herrmann, H. D. Isenberg, and H. J. Shadomy (ed.), Manual of clinical microbiology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
  • Weichart D., Querfurth N., Dreger M., HenggeAronis R. (2003). Global role for ClpPcontaining proteases in stationary-phase adaptation of Escherichia coli. J. Bacter iol. 185(1): 115-125.

FULL Text